What is Klonopin?
Klonopin is the brand name for Clonazepam, which can suppress the spike and wave discharge in absence seizures (petit mal) and decrease the frequency, amplitude, duration and spread of discharge in minor motor seizures.
Klonopin is available as scored tablets with a K-shaped perforation. It is a benzodiazepine and contains 0.5 mg, 1 mg or 2 mg clonazepam. Unscored tablets with a K-shaped perforation contain 1 mg or 2 mg of clonazepam.
Each tablet contains lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and corn starch, with the following dye systems: 0.5 mg-FD&C Yellow No. 6; 1 mg-FD&C Blue No. 1 and FD&C Blue No. 2.
How does Klonopin work?
When administered to humans, a single oral dose of Klonopin can give
maximum blood levels of drug, in most cases, within one to two hours. It
is estimated that the half-life of the parent compound varies
approximately from 18 to 50 hours, and the major route of excretion is
in the urine.
So far, five metabolites have been identified in humans. The bio-transformation of clonazepam follows two pathways:
- Oxidative hydroxylation at the C-3 position and
- Reduction of the 7-nitro function to form 7-amino and/or 7-acetyl-amino derivatives.
Diseases like Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, Akinetic and Myoclonic seizures etc. can be treated with Klonopin. Patients suffering from Absence seizures (petit mal) Klonopin may be useful if they have failed to respond to succinimides.
Case studies indicate that almost 30% of patients have shown a loss of anticonvulsant activity, often within three months of administration. In some cases, adjustment in dosage has helped in increasing efficacy of the drug.
What are the precautions in Klonopin Administration?
Patients with known history of sensitivity to benzodiazepines and having clinical or biochemical evidence of significant liver disease must not be administered Klonopin.
It may be used in patients with open angle glaucoma who are receiving appropriate therapy, but is contraindicated in acute narrow angle glaucoma.
Patients receiving Klonopin should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle, since it induces CNS depression. They must also be cautioned about the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS-depressant drugs during Klonopin therapy.
Usage in Pregnancy
The effects of Klonopin in human pregnancy and nursing infants are unknown.
What can be possible adverse reactions of usage of Klonopin?
CNS depression is the most common side effect observed in Klonopin. Study of case history shows that 50% patients suffer from drowsiness and about 30% suffer from Ataxia.
In some cases, these may diminish with time; behavior problems have been noted in approximately 25% of patients. Others, listed by Symptoms are:
- Hepatic and Miscellaneous
What is the dosage pattern and how is it administered?
Infants and Children
Klonopin is administered orally. In order to minimize drowsiness, the initial dose for infants and children (Up to 10 years of age or 30 kg of body weight) should be between 0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg/day but not to exceed 0.05 mg/kg/day given in two or three divided doses.
The initial dose for adults should not exceed 1.5 mg/day divided into three doses.
How is it supplied?
Klonopin is available as scored tablets-0.5 mg, orange; 1 mg, blue; 2 mg, white-bottles of 100; Tel-E-Dose®, packages of 100, available in boxes of four reverse-numbered cards of 25.